The intake needed was provided by the fats and oils diet. Global oilseeds production reached record levels of 207 MT in 2015 and expected to continue its moderate expansion at a growth rate of 1.6% p.a.

Zhang ZS, Wang LJ, Li D, Jiao SS, Chen XD, Mao ZH (2008) Ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from flaxseed.

A combination of microwave and ultrasound was also found to maximize aromatization of olive oil when mixed with vegetables, herbs, spices or fruits [16]. Residual meals are concentrated sources of high-quality protein and are generally used in animal feeds. As far as safety and environment issues are concerned, petroleum-derived solvents should be replaced by greener options that are non-flammable or low flammable within a narrow range of explosions such as azeotrope solvents, solvents based on aldehydes and ketones, aqueous-based solvents and ionic solvents.

Macromol Rapid Commun 29:1620–1625. It consists of pumping the crude oil into a horizontal or vertical clarification tank. Most importantly, the choice of non-VOC solvents in chemical reactions and/or natural product extraction not only relies on the principle of eliminating the health hazard factor posed by VOCs but also needs to respond to a number of green engineering criteria which are necessary to protect our environment and promote growth and sustainability within the chemical industry. Table 1 shows the data obtained of oil content regarding soybean, sunflower, canola, peanut, and crambe (%) depending on the solvent and grain moisture.

Fine virgin olive oil—oil that has a flavour rating of 5.5 or better and a 1.5 max free acidity.

On top of the environmental impact, the utilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to affect chemical reactions and/or extract natural products from plants is sparking an outcry because of their associated health, e.g.

It is important to note that metal crushers’ type as well as the crushing intensity affects the size of the stone fragments, the extraction yields and the organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil (VOO).

They are recognized as natural fat-soluble antioxidants which permit to retard rancidity. Using a laboratory microwave oven, maximal recoveries of glycerolipids are reported to be similar to the classical Folch’s procedure [15].

New J Chem 40:1564–1570, Sehailia M, CHEMAT S (2017) Green extraction of edible oils in edible oils. In this regard, various condensation reactions, nucleophilic additions, electrophilic aromatic substitutions, cycloaddition reactions, Petasis borono–Mannich, Friedel–Crafts alkylations and other multicomponent reactions were successfully achieved using glycerol as solvent.

ChemistryOPEN 4:39–46, Habib PM, Kavala V, Kuo CW, Yao CF (2008) Catalyst-free aqueous-mediated conjugative addition of indoles to β-nitrostyrenes.

[17] indicated the oxidative deterioration under microwave power of 720 W for 1.5–15 min of refined peanut, high-oleic sunflower and canola oil.

EFSA J 8:1462, Boskou D, Blekas G, Tsimidou M (2006) Olive oil composition. The worldwide production of olive oil has considerably increased; it has risen from 1032 MT in 1958/1959 to around 3 MT in 2009/2010, then to 3.4 MT in 2011/2012.

The same observation is noted for behinic acid (C22:0) rarely present in common oils, and if it is present, it does not exceed 1% of total fatty acids. Given the eco-benign and sustainable source of glycerol, this compound was widely examined as solvent to affect number of metal and non-metal catalysed reactions. The profile of phytosterols allows to detect oil adulteration or to identify the oils and fats in a mixture.

Palm oil has specific fatty acid composition with equal portions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and a significant amount of the saturated fatty acids (10–16%) in sn-2 position of triglycerides. Arachidic (eicosenoic) acid (C20:0) has been found at trace level (<1% of total fatty acids) in conventional oils such as safflower (0.17–0.2%), canola (0.2–1.2%) and soybean (0.1–0.6%) oils [39], whereas it reached high amounts in mustard oil (5.48 ± 0.36%) from India and pracaxi oil (12.3 ± 0.12%) [41]. After cooking, the seed is passed for flaking and flatten to a thickness of ~0.25 mm [6]. Heterocyclic Lett 3:69–74, Cabrera DML, Líbero FM, Alves D et al (2012) Glycerol as a recyclable solvent in a microwave-assisted synthesis of disulfides. Flaking helps in distortion of the cells and rupture of cell wall. The cholesterol is the animal fat forms as for butter which can contain about 215 mg/100 g. This kind of sterols is rarely found in vegetable fats and oils. Similarly, myristic acid (C14:0) which is a characteristic compound of animal fats can also be found at significant levels in coconut and palm kernel oil. Carotenoids and chlorophyll are the most important pigments which can be found in vegetable oils. | %PDF-1.7 %���� Different types of phytosterols are present in oils as for brassicasterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol, and campesterol and β-sitosterol are the most abundant and found in the major of oils at high concentrations as for canola oil (1904.4 and 3608.7 mg/Kg), soybean oil (1191.40 and 2060.80 mg/Kg) and sunflower oil (266.50 and 2300.10 mg/Kg).

Ulcer Prevention & GERD Healing 5. Although, free fatty acid is soluble in acetone, phosphatides are insoluble.

One of the most commonly exploited bio-derived oils used as solvent in chemical reactions is glycerol.

A solvent having low solubility at ambient temperature and high solubility at higher temperature is desirable to profit from oil separation without evaporation.

Phosphatides are present at trace level (0.1–3%) in crude oils. Hexane is a chemical solvent that presents as a clear, odorless liquid that has a high evaporation rate and low boiling point, which makes hexane an ideal chemical for extraction. The solvent dissolves the oil, while the protein remains in the meal with the fibres and carbohydrates. Russ Chem Bull 62:1244–1247, Taduri AK, Babu PNK, Devi BR (2014) Glycerol containing triacetylborate mediated syntheses of novel 2-heterostyryl benzimidazole derivatives: a green approach.

The most oil palm commercialized is from E. guineensis species which has spread to most parts of the tropical and subtropical zones of the world but particularly Malaysia and Indonesia [60]. Food Chem 221:1466–1473, Siri-Tarino P, Sun Q, Hu F (2010) Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease.

The properties of the oil extracted by azeotrope solvent show less density and refractive index value as compared to the n-hexane with fewer impurities. Soybean oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil are the main sources. Contrary to the SFA, oleic acid reduces effectively at lowest total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels, and oils rich in oleic acid are advised in feeding diet [45]. OCL 19(2):63–75. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 74:505–510. In addition to glycerol, the process is primarily used with the prime objective of making biodiesel (Fig. Certain usual vegetable oils like olive oil rich in oleic acid registered level of linoleic acid ranging from 3.5 to 21.0% of total fatty acids. During rapeseed dehulling, moistening the seed with steam and drying the moistened seed in a fluidized bed resulted in maximum dehulling efficiency [10].

Equally, olive oil was used to extract phenolic compounds from rosemary, dry oregano; this process significantly increased the amount of phenolic contents by 1.7 and 3.5 times for rosemary and oregano gourmet oils, respectively [91].

They can also be found in coconut and palm kernel oils, which contain more saturated fatty acids than lard, beef tallow and butterfat [38]. 2049 0 obj <> endobj J Agric Sci Technol 18:79–91.

In this case, conditioning the raw material is required which includes a combination of drying with heating to induce the hulls surrounding the oilseed to dry and shrink away from the meat part of the seed. 200 L ultrasound-assisted extraction system (courtesy of Charles Gantz (REUS, France)).

The authors also studied the effect of VOO extracts on human MG-63 cell growth; during the study, it was found that such an effect was strongly dependent on the type of cultivar and the grove altitude.

AOCS Press, Champaign, Thakor NJ, Sokhansanj S, McGregor I, McCurdy S (1995) Dehulling of canola by hydrothermal treatments. In the Strop & Perry process (1990), the mixture is heated under vacuum, causing some water to evaporate, and the resulting slurry is then separated in a centrifuge to recover the cooked oil. Such processes are only suitable for seeds or fruits (such as olive and palm) containing large quantities of easily released fatty matter. 浙公网安备 33010002000092号

Edible fats and oils are composed of major and minor constituents. However, certification schemes and labelling might bost demand for non-GMO modified sources, thus further area expansion is expected and subsequently resulting in  more supply growth. Wadsworth, Thomson, Data from Codex Alimentarius (2013) Codex standard for named vegetable oils Codex Stan 210-1999. CRC Press (Taylor & Francis), Boca Raton, Gracia I, Rodríguez JF, Lucas AD, Fernandez-Ronco MP, García MT (2011) Optimization of supercritical CO, McHugh MA, Krukonis VJ (1994) Supercritical fluid extraction.

Fokou PA, Meier MAR (2008) Acyclic triene metathesis (atmet) polymerization with chain-stoppers: molecular weight control in the synthesis of branched polymers.

Organometallics 30:5532–5536, Chahdoura F, Favier I, Pradel C et al (2015) Palladium nanoparticles stabilised by PTA derivatives in glycerol: synthesis and catalysis in a green wet phase.

Hills G (2003) Industrial use of lipases to produce fatty acid esters. The presence of tocotrienols and tocopherols in the range of 600–1000 ppm gives to palm oil high antioxidant protection [60]. Heinrichs V, Thum O (2005) Biocatalysis for the production of care specialties.

INFORM 12:141, Ariffin A (1994) Selected readings on palm oil and its uses. In the case of palm oil, crude oil is obtained after a digestion step followed by a pressing stage. 2-MeTHF).

Adopted 1999.

Both peanuts and canola oil experienced changes in the heating profiles, free fatty acids composition and peroxide value.

Peter T (2016) FAO food outlook May 2015.

were able to use soybean, corn, grapeseed and olive oils to extract astaxanthin from micro-algae (Haematococcus pluvialis) [93].

Above the proteins and lipids present in seeds, the wall surrounding the cell is mainly composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin.

In this regard, lipases are widely used industrially as catalysts to produce cosmeceutical ingredients in the form of emollient esters such as myristyl myristate (. AOCS Press, Champaign, pp 41–72, Odile M (2015) Caractéristiques des huiles de lin et de chanvre. Palm plant grows under specific conditions as for land below 400 m attitude, moisture more than 80%, moderate temperature between 22 and 33 °C, adequate light not less than 5–6 h daily sunshine and solar radiation of 16–17 MJ/m2 per day, high annual rainfall between 2500 and 4000 mm and for low wind speed.


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